As scholars seek to contribute to improving consumer welfare throughout the world through future research and writing, a valuable exercise is to review a selection of the earliest work in what we might call the new social conscience of marketing. The purpose of this chapter is to conduct such a selective review to serve three distinct purposes. First and most fundamentally, it is to alert present-day scholars to significant past work on particular topics. Second, it is to describe the approaches used and some of the principal findings. Last, it is to reflect on such work and offer what the authors see as implications for present-day scholars considering working in, or near to, the particular domain. Such implications may highlight unresolved issues that have present-day relevance and/or identify methodological challenges requiring new theory or conceptual development. The chapter’s overview necessarily reflects both the experience and approaches of the three authors. It is thereby selective in its topics and, perhaps, subjective in its treatment. We have, however, sought to provide citations to some of the most central works that can then be used by others for further bibliographic explorations. The chapter is divided into three major parts. The first part provides a historical and motivational overview of the research on consumer welfare. The second part (in two subsections) highlights consumer welfare research related to vulnerable consumers, specifically the young and old. The third part focuses on research in consumer welfare guided by the quality-of-life (QOL) concept, the purpose of which is to motivate future research using theoretical concepts from the growing field of QOL studies. Throughout the chapter, we make a distinction between what we and others have called the “dark side” and “bright side” of marketing’s social impact. Dark side considerations reflect the fact that a range of marketing strategies and tactics have the potential—and often the reality—of negatively impacting the welfare of consumers and/or the broader societies which they inhabit. These impacts can include outright deception, promotion of undesirable values and behaviors, and neglect of societies’ most vulnerable target audiences. Bright side considerations focus on the ways in which marketing practices can improve individuals’ lives and the social world they inhabit. Much of the latter work is subsumed under the broad label of social marketing.

This study develops and tests a model of self-expressiveness in sport tourism, defined as the extent to which a tourist perceives that a sport activity is reflective of his or her personal identity. Self-expressiveness in a sport activity experienced by a tourist should depend on the activity’s perceived difficulty, perceived effort, perceived importance, and potential for self-realization. In turn, a tourist’s self-expressiveness in a sport activity should exert a positive influence on the tourist’s experience of personal happiness (subjective well-being). The results of two surveys involving 1,251 travelers who participated in a dance festival (study 1) and ski activities (study 2) during their vacations confirm the hypotheses, revealing several interesting theoretical and managerial implications

Previous research has established the effect of self-congruity on both pre- and post-visit constructs, but its predictive power has appeared minimal. Departing from both classical and contemporary approaches to human needs and values, this study proposes a comprehensive model explaining more variance in post-visit destination loyalty judgments. The model comprises six explanatory variables, in addition to self-congruity: functional, hedonic, leisure, economic, safety, and moral congruity. Based on a large-scale web survey among tourists (N = 973), the results provide good support for the proposed model (64% explained variance). Each of the seven congruity components exerts a significant influence on post-visit loyalty, but their relative contributions differ considerably. Other than self-congruity, functional, hedonic, leisure, and safety congruity exert the greatest influence on post-visit loyalty judgments; in contrast, economic and moral congruity have lesser influences. The authors discuss the results in light of their theoretical and practical implications for destination marketing.

One way to generate more traffic in a mall is to build a strong mall image perceived by shoppers as delivering a unique bundle of benefits. Such effort has to be guided by a performance metric, namely a comprehensive measure of mall image. We hypothesize that mall image can best be conceptualized in terms of five major dimensions a laAilawadi and Keller [Ailawadi K.L., Keller K.L. Understanding Retail Branding: Conceptual Insights and Research Priorities. J Retail 2004; 80 (Winter):331–342.] retail branding dimensions: access, store atmosphere, price and promotion, cross-category assortment, and within-category assortment. The predictive (nomological) validity of the mall image measure was tested in relation to mall attitude, mall patronage, and word-of-mouth communications. We validated the mall image measure using data generated with mall-intercept surveys in two different malls in a large city in Canada (N=861). The data provided support for the predictive validity of the mall image measure. Managerial implications of the mall image measure are also discussed.

This paper investigates why, when, and how feelings of personal control influence the way consumers process product information. Four studies were conducted. The results show that under baseline conditions, consumers who believe that they can control the environment (internal locus of control) show greater confidence in their emerging preference in a choice process and demonstrate higher levels of preference-supporting bias than do consumers who believe that the environment controls their fate (external locus of control). However, the opposite relationship between locus of control and confirmatory information processing occurs when a threat to personal control is encountered. When threatened, consumers with an internal (external) locus of control activate an accuracy (defense) goal that results in lower (higher) levels of confidence in their emerging preference and confirmatory information processing than do consumers with an external (internal) locus of control. These findings are integrated within a general framework that accounts for the impact of personal control on information processing. The framework predicts and empirical evidence confirms that the alternative strategies adopted to process information at different levels of personal control affect both product choice and willingness to pay for a new product.

I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision-makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice.

The preference-supporting bias in information evaluation, known as information distortion, is a ubiquitous phenomenon. The present work demonstrates that priming a relational mindset induces individuals to process independent units of information interdependently and therefore contributes to increasing distortion. In three studies, a relational mindset is activated by asking participants to generate solutions to cross-domain analogies. All three studies show that the activation of a relational mindset then carries over into a second, unrelated choice task and increases distortion. In addition, the present work shows that generating solutions to cross-domain analogies activates a high level of construal, which in turn mediates the effect of relational thinking on information distortion. Finally, the present work also demonstrates that imposing a cognitive load during the choice task reduces the impact of the relational mindset on distortion. In sum, this research demonstrates that the same mechanism that promotes creative thinking (i.e., seeing relationships across concepts) may also induce more biased information processing by prompting individuals to process independent units of information interdependently.

A fundamental criterion of judgment is consistency among beliefs. To augment traditional methods for studying cognitive consistency, we treat it as a goal and present a priming method for increasing its activation. Three studies use three criteria to validate the method: an increase in the biased evaluation of incoming information, speed in a lexical decision task, and participants’ direct reports of greater goal activation. The method is then used to verify the role of the consistency goal in three diverse judgment phenomena. Priming cognitive consistency increases the search for postdecisional supporting information (selective exposure to information), the agreement between preference and prediction (the desirability bias or wishful thinking), and the adjustment of a socially unacceptable implicit attitude to conform to the corresponding explicit attitude. One conclusion is that the cause of these phenomena is not only motivated reasoning (driven directionally by a desired outcome) but also the purely cognitive and nondirectional process of simply making beliefs more consistent.

Anchoring is often considered to be the product of two distinct processes: (a) the under-adjustment associated with the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic, when individuals provide their own anchors; and (b) selective accessibility, when an experiment provides an anchor. The evidence for the existence of two distinct processes mostly comes from the differential impact of effort across anchor types (self-generated vs. experimenter-provided). The present work challenges this distinction by demonstrating that priming selective accessibility (a) impacts the anchoring bias independently of the type of anchor and (b) interacts with effort in the same way across both sources of anchors. Therefore, the present results challenge the dichotomy between selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment as two independent processes. Instead, they suggest the idea that these processes are both responsible for yielding the commonly observed anchoring phenomenon.

While it is well established that the search for information after a decision is biased toward supporting that decision, the case of preference-supporting search before the decision remains open. Three studies of consumer choices consistently found a complete absence of a pre-choice bias toward searching for preference-supporting information. The absence of this confirming search bias occurred for products that were both hedonic and utilitarian, both expensive and inexpensive, and both high and low in expected brand loyalty. Experiment 3 also verified the presence of the expected post-choice search bias to support the chosen alternative. Therefore the absence of a pre-choice search bias in all three studies was not likely to be due to our using a method that was so insensitive that a search bias would not be observed under any circumstances. In addition to the absence of an effect of prior preferences on information selection, subjects’ self-reported search strategies exhibited a clear tendency toward a balance of positive and negative information. Across the three studies, we also tested for the presence of a preference-supporting bias in the evaluation of the information acquired in the search process. This evaluation bias was found both pre- and post-choice.

The relationship between clients and their health care providers has an important impact on health promotion and disease prevention. Perhaps the most important element of patients' relationships with their health care providers is trust. Enhancing clients' trust in their health care provider has been shown to lead to greater adherence to medical advice, continuity of care, and better overall health outcomes. Pharmacists are beginning to take on the role of primary health care providers to meet the increasing need for affordable, quality medical care. As pharmacists begin to dispense medical advice as well as medicine, there is an increased need for research on the determinants of trust in the pharmacist-client relationship. In this article, we conduct in-depth interviews and a large-scale field survey to develop a social marketing campaign to increase clients' trust in their pharmacists. We implement the campaign through a randomized field experiment and find evidence that emphasizing relational benefits in the developing stages of the pharmacist–client relationship increases trust.

The relationship between clients and their health care providers has an important impact on health promotion and disease prevention. Perhaps the most important element of patients' relationships with their health care providers is trust. Enhancing clients' trust in their health care provider has been shown to lead to greater adherence to medical advice, continuity of care, and better overall health outcomes. Pharmacists are beginning to take on the role of primary health care providers to meet the increasing need for affordable, quality medical care. As pharmacists begin to dispense medical advice as well as medicine, there is an increased need for research on the determinants of trust in the pharmacist-client relationship. In this article, we conduct in-depth interviews and a large-scale field survey to develop a social marketing campaign to increase clients' trust in their pharmacists. We implement the campaign through a randomized field experiment and find evidence that emphasizing relational benefits in the developing stages of the pharmacist–client relationship increases trust.

The main goal of this chapter is to identify various consumer well-being (CWB) measures and classify them based on their theoretical foundations. Thus, we make an attempt to provide a detailed and comprehensive treatment of CWB measures and their underlying conceptual models. Doing so can help marketers and policymakers choose appropriate and effective CWB measures to gauge the effectiveness of marketing and policy programs.

Individuals hold two distinct sets of beliefs about shopping activities: Positive beliefs regarding the degree to which shopping contributes to quality of life (shopping well-being), and negative beliefs related to the degree to which shopping activities result in overspending time, effort, and money (shopping ill-being). Shopping well-being and shopping ill-being are conceptualized as independent constructs in that shopping ill-being is not treated as negative polar of a single dimension. That is, one can experience both shopping well-being as well as shopping ill-being, simultaneously. We hypothesized that (1) shopping well-being is a positive predictor of life satisfaction, (2) shopping ill-being is a negative predictor of life satisfaction, and (3) shopping well- being does contribute to life satisfaction under conditions of low than high shopping ill-being. The study surveyed 1035 respondents in the UK. The study results supported hypotheses 1 and 3, not Hypothesis 2. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for retailers, macro-marketers, and policy makers.

The study defines shopping well-being at the mall as a shopper's perceived impact of a shopping mall in contributing to satisfaction in important life domains resulting in a global judgment that the mall contributes significantly to one's overall quality of life. Particularly, the study puts forward six predictive factors of the retail mix as influencing shopping well-being: functionality, convenience, safety, leisure, atmospherics, and self-identification. Additionally, the study predicts that shopping well-being positively influences mall loyalty and positive word of mouth. A shopper survey conducted in two North-American shopping malls provides data testing several predictions of potential theoretical and managerial significances.

This handbook informs the reader about how much progress we, the human race, have made in enhancing the quality of life on this planet. Many skeptics focus on how the quality of life has deteriorated over the course of human history, particularly given World War II and its aftermath. This handbook provides a positive perspective on the history of well-being. Quality of life, as documented by scientists worldwide, has significantly improved. Nevertheless, one sees more improvements in well-being in some regions of the world than in others. Why? This handbook documents the progress of well-being in the various world regions as well as the differences in those regions. The broad questions that the handbook addresses include: What does well-being mean? How do different philosophical and religious traditions interpret the concept of well-being within their own context? Has well-being remained the same over different historical epochs and for different regions and subregions of the world? In which areas of human development have we been most successful in advancing individual and collective well-being? In which sectors has the attainment of well-being proven most difficult? How does well-being differ within and between population groups that, for a variety of socially created reasons, have been the most disadvantaged (e.g., children, the aged, women, the poor, and racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities?)

Both Canada and the United States are, among the countries of the world, at the highest end of human development and quality of life/well-being. With respect to the relative rankings of these two countries, the outcome depends on the specific indicators and indices that are used. In general, however, Canada tends to rank ahead of the United States on a number of well-being dimensions and indices, as indicated in the foregoing. The economic well-being of the people in both countries is considered to be very high compared to the world at large. The United States continues to be the world’s leading economy in terms of both GDP overall and GDP per capita. The health well-being of the people of North America continues to be highly favorable compared to the vast majority of countries worldwide. Average life expectancy is high and continues to rise. The same can be said about other health indicators such as infant and child mortality rates. The recent changes in the healthcare system in the United States are likely to further improve the health well-being of Americans. Both countries are doing well with respect to intellectual/educational well-being. Both countries are education magnets for many of the world’s citizens who seek high quality education, both at secondary schools and educational institutions of higher learning. North Americans self-assess their sense of subjective well-being at a very high level, as evident in results from the majority of World Values Surveys since 1981 and in the more recently conducted Gallup Organization’s Happiness polls. Canadians and Americans tend to be happy in general, with Canadians reporting a slightly higher level of life satisfaction than residents of the United States. Other indicators of intellectual well-being show that both Americans and Canadians, along with their counterparts in other economically advanced countries, are highly literate and well-educated compared to people from other developed countries.    

This chapter summarizes in seven organizing themes the book’s major findings concerning national, regional, and international changes: (1) philosophical advances in well-being; (2) global advances in population; (3) global advances in health; (4) global advances in education; (5) global advances in income and poverty reduction; (6) global advances in social welfare, in particular, the steadily increasing levels of income security provided to the world’s growing population via income security programs and other publicly and privately financed social initiatives; and (7) global advances in subjective well-being. All of these components are essential to assessing changes in well-being, and each reveals unique patterns of the human condition in various nations and regions of world. At the end of the chapter, we summarize the most salient post-World War II changes, which eventually will serve as the basis for a series of regional monographs and a second volume to this book. Interspersed throughout are discussions of advances in well-being that have occurred worldwide with respect to women and other historically disadvantaged population groups (such as children and youth, the elderly, persons with serious disabilities, those who are financially impoverished, and other social, political, cultural, religious, and sexual minority groups). We also discuss contributions made by medical and other technologies in advancing well-being over time that benefit people everywhere in the world (e.g., advances in telecommunications, transportation, preventive and curative health care, and finance and accounting technologies).

Horrific acts of terrorism have emerged as defining features of Islamic–Western relations throughout much of this still young century. Arising from decades, indeed centuries, of mutual distrust contemporary patterns of radicalized Islamic terrorism toward the West are rooted in their shared histories, traditions, values, norms and, for some, deeply held religious convictions. They also are the product of centuries-long colonization of large regions of the ‘‘Islamic world’’ by Western powers or their proxies. This paper presents an innovative approach for advancing the quality of life of Islamic and Western societies through a fuller understanding of the origins and dynamics of Islamic-inspired terrorist acts against the West. The paper examines the relationship that exists between acts of terrorism associated with a select group of 27 member states of the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and: (1) their years of independence since colonization; (2) their current types of polity; (3) the extent of their civil liberties and political freedoms; (4) country levels of perceived public corruption; and (5) the overall level of each country’s broad based social development (or quality of life). The paper concludes with an ‘‘evolving agenda for action’’ that seeks to advance the quality of life of all people living in Islamic and Western nations.

Although it is often assumed that an individual’s self-view as a leader has an impact on that individual’s emergence as a leader, there is currently no empirical evidence of this effect in the literature. Longitudinal social network analysis is used to study both the impact of an individual’s self-view as a leader on leadership emergence and how the process of leadership emergence influences an individual’s self-view as a leader over time. Results suggest a reciprocal process: An individual’s self-view as a leader influences the number of leadership nominations an individual receives over time and the number of leadership nominations received over time influences an individual’s self-view as a leader.

Recent work demonstrates that narratives persuade via mechanisms distinct from other persuasive message formats. The present work draws from the discourse processing and communication literature to introduce a construct of retrospective reflection as an additional mediator in narrative persuasion. Retrospective reflection represents self or other-relevant memories evoked by transportation into a story, which corroborates and extends story-implied beliefs into the reader's world. The reported studies indicate that retrospective reflection is distinct from transportation, mediates the relationship between transportation and various persuasion-related outcomes, and predicts these outcomes beyond transportation. The current work also examines the influence of personal relevance (Study 2) and cognitive load (Study 3) to better understand the role of retrospective reflection in narrative persuasion.

Consumers often read online consumer reviews before making a purchase decision. The format of these reviews (i.e., more information-based vs. more story-based) varies. The current research examines how story-based online consumer reviews influence attitudes toward the reviewed product through a framework of narrative persuasion. The current work features an additional proposed process beyond what is captured by current conceptualizations of narrative engagement. Two studies demonstrate that reviews with a more story-like format lead to higher levels of transportation into the review, which lead to higher levels of reflection on the message, and ultimately influence behavioral intent. The present work also examines how product type and review valence influence transportation and reflection in distinct ways, providing additional evidence for the role of both mechanisms as distinct processes in narrative persuasion.

Individuals often estimate the duration oftasks that others are engaged in (time a colleaguewould take to write a report, time a spouse would take to get dressed for a party, etc.). Construal-level theory suggests that thinking about ‘how’ (vs. ‘why’) a task is to be completed shrinks duration estimates. We argue that this effect arises for simple tasks, but complex tasks yield a reversal. Specifically, because ‘how’ participants are more attuned to the greater number of steps required for complex tasks, thinking ‘how’ (vs. ‘why’) elongates estimates. In four experiments, we test this theory usingdifferent scenarios, manipulated andmeasured complexity, and subjective and objective time estimates. Support emerges for the reversal, and for mediation via the perceived number of steps. Implications arise for four research domains: (a) construal level, (b) estimates oftask duration, (c) planning fallacy, and (d) task complexity.

Purpose – A common assumption holds that retailers generally contribute to customer life satisfaction – retailers offer products and services that solve consumer problems – large and small. However, some retail experiences have been found to generate dissatisfaction, stress and unhappiness for some customers but not for others. Research is needed to not only demonstrate how retail experiences impact customer life satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to address the question: why does satisfaction with various store types impact customer life satisfaction differently? Design/methodology/approach – The research context of this study is grocery retailers (neighbourhood convenience stores, super markets, and grocery discounters) in Austria. Using stratified random sampling across store types, a total of 379 personal interviews with grocery store customers were conducted. OLS regression analysis was conducted to test the research model. Findings – The study results suggest that satisfaction with a store type impacts customer life satisfaction depending on store-type congruity with shoppers’ identity. That is, satisfaction with a store type (e.g. neighbourhood convenience stores, super markets, and grocery discounters) is found to influence life satisfaction if the store type is congruent with the shoppers’ self-image and lifestyle. Practical implications – An emphasis on store-type congruity with shopper’s identity allows retailers to shift their attention towards creating more meaningful shopping experiences. Such a shift in focus may not only benefit retailers due to increase in customer loyalty for that store format. It also benefits shoppers themselves – the shopping experience contributes to shoppers’ life satisfaction. Originality/value – This research introduces store-type congruity with shopper’s identity as a key concept that connects shopping experiences to customer life satisfaction. This contributes towards building the hierarchical theory of shopping motivation. It demonstrates under what conditions shopping experiences impact consumer life satisfaction – a research topic that has received little attention in the retailing literature to date.

The study explores the factor structure of the Sirgy et al. [Sirgy MJ, Johar JS, Gao T. Toward a code of ethics for marketing educators. Journal of Business Ethics 2006; 63(1): 1–20] measure of marketing faculty's perceptions of unethical behavior and tests its predictive validity. We surveyed members of the Academy of Marketing Science regarding their perceptions of acceptability of 142 behaviors that marketing faculty may encounter in their roles as teacher, researcher, administrator, consultant, professional colleague, and college professor. We used exploratory factor analyses to reveal the factor structures of the items grouped by four faculty roles: teaching, research, administrative service, and professional service. We then tested the measure's predictive validity by testing for demographic differences (gender, age, rank, tenure, and level of education) with respect to the 23 types of unethical faculty behaviors. The final measure can be used by marketing-related associations to gauge the norms of faculty conduct, which in turn can help them develop their own academic code of ethics.

Consumer’s overall perception of quality-of-life impact of a consumer durable (PQOLI) refers to consumer’s subjective evaluation of the degree to which marketplace experiences related to a given product impacts one’s overall quality of life (QOL). What are the factors that impact PQOLI? A model based on the concept of the consumption life cycle is developed to answer this question. The model posits that PQOLI is mostly influenced by satisfaction with product purchase, preparation, ownership, consumption, and maintenance experiences. In turn, the model also posits that with satisfaction with purchase, preparation, ownership, consumption, and maintenance are influenced by a set of consumption experiences. The data was collected using a sample of college students. Each respondent was randomly assigned to one of eight product categories: photo cameras, cell phones, athletic shoes, cologne, televisions, watches, sunglasses, and video consoles. The results were generally supportive of the model. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

A positive youth development program focusing on HIV prevention, alcohol abuse prevention, conflict resolution skills, and managing peer pressure was developed and implemented in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Participatory action research methods were combined with a social marketing approach to generate and implement a narrative-based curriculum. A posttest-only control group field experiment was used to evaluate the impact of a classroom intervention on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes related to the topics covered. The narrative-based curriculum was more effective than the standard, government-endorsed curriculum in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes toward sexual behavior and conflict resolution. The implications of implementing a narrative-based curriculum using a social marketing approach are discussed.

Entrepreneurship can be characterized as consisting of two distinct approaches: social and commercial orientation. We present the validity network schema (VNS) to better understand these two orientations. The VNS is a framework that describes the components, stages, and paths for conducting research. The components of research reflect three domains: methodological, conceptual, and substantive. Social entrepreneurs generally begin their research efforts in the substantive domain, whereas commercial entrepreneurs initiate research in the conceptual domain. The article delineates ways in which researchers and practitioners whose focus is on one entrepreneurial orientation can learn from the other, draw insights from the VNS, and consequently enhance their efforts.

A positive youth development program focusing on HIV prevention, alcohol abuse prevention, conflict resolution skills, and managing peer pressure was developed and implemented in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Participatory action research methods were combined with a social marketing approach to generate and implement a narrative-based curriculum. A posttest-only control group field experiment was used to evaluate the impact of a classroom intervention on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes related to the topics covered. The narrative-based curriculum was more effective than the standard, government-endorsed curriculum in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes toward sexual behavior and conflict resolution. The implications of implementing a narrative-based curriculum using a social marketing approach are discussed.

Consumers often read online consumer reviews before making a purchase decision. The format of these reviews (i.e., more information-based vs. more story-based) varies. The current research examines how story-based online consumer reviews influence attitudes toward the reviewed product through a framework of narrative persuasion. The current work features an additional proposed process beyond what is captured by current conceptualizations of narrative engagement. Two studies demonstrate that reviews with a more story-like format lead to higher levels of transportation into the review, which lead to higher levels of reflection on the message, and ultimately influence behavioral intent. The present work also examines how product type and review valence influence transportation and reflection in distinct ways, providing additional evidence for the role of both mechanisms as distinct processes in narrative persuasion.

International Service Learning (ISL) is a growing trend in higher education in which students have the opportunity to earn academic credit while participating in community-based service projects. This growth represents an opportunity for NGOs to generate resources for their organization to pursue their mission and generate broader social value. The present work adopts a service dominant logic (SD Logic; Vargo & Lusch, 2004) perspective of value cocreation to highlight the exchange that occurs on two ISL programs based in sub-Saharan Africa. We find that the process of critical reflection on personal fulfillment and social justice serves as the vehicle to create change in (and value for) the program participants. NGOs gain a range of resources including financial, human, intellectual, and social capital through creating this ISL experience with consumers. The current work illustrates how ISL is an opportunity for NGOs to further their mission and serves as a means of sustainable social change.

We conducted a study to test the notion that transformational leadership style is more effective than transactional leadership style by fostering employee well-being (enhancing quality of work life and life satisfaction as well as increasing organizational commitment and decreasing employee burnout. We surveyed 443 employees at 5-star hotels in Turkey. The results provide support for the positive effect of transformational leadership in the hospitality industry, which implies that hospitality managers should be trained to use a transformational leadership style to enhance employee well-being.

The objective of this study is to test a theoretical model that links community residents’ perceptions of tourism impact (economic, social, cultural, and environmental) with residents’ satisfaction with particular life domains (material well-being, community well-being, emotional well-being, and health and safety well-being) and overall life satisfaction. The model also posits that the strength of these perceptual relationships is moderated by the stage of tourism development in the community. The model was tested using a survey of 321 respondents from communities varying in their level of tourism development. The results were mostly supportive of the overall model. Theoretical and managerial implications of the study findings are discussed.

Human crowding at a festival can affect visitor satisfaction differently to spatial crowding. Festival visitors perceive human crowding as a situation in which the festival is full of people. Spatial crowding, on the other hand, is perceived as restricting movement. We hypothesized that human crowding affects visitor satisfaction in a positive way (by increasing positive affect and decreasing negative affect), whereas spatial crowding affects visitor satisfaction in a negative way (by decreasing positive affect and increasing negative affect). We tested these hypotheses using data collected through an on-site survey at the 2012 Seoul Lantern Festival in South Korea: 423 visitors attending the festival completed the survey. The survey results supported the hypotheses. Managerial implications of the findings are also discussed.

Three studies are reported here, designed to answer two questions: (1) Does self-congruity influence brand attitude in music video product placements? (2) If so, under what conditions? Three correlational studies were conducted to answer these questions. Study 1 demonstrates the self-congruity effect of product placement in music videos: Consumers who experience high levels of self-congruity with the brand personality are more likely to have a favorable attitude toward that brand than those who experience low self-congruity with the same brand personality. The second study hypothesized that the self-congruity effect is likely to be stronger under high than under low conditions of involvement with the celebrity musician. However, the results showed that self-congruity had a main effect on brand attitude with no interaction with involvement with the celebrity musician. The third study hypothesized that the self-congruity effect is also more evident under high than under low conditions of congruence between the brand and musician. The results showed that self-congruity had a main effect on brand attitude with no interaction with congruence between the brand and musician.

The setting of a traveler’s goals can influence the traveler’s life satisfaction. The travel goal valence principle states that life satisfaction of tourists is high when their travel goals are related more to (1) intrinsic than extrinsic motives, (2) abstract than concrete desired states, (3) growth than basic needs, (4) approach of desired states than avoidance of undesired states, (5) deprived than non-deprived needs, and (6) flow than non-flow activities. The main purpose of this study is to test the theoretical propositions stemming from the travel goal valence principle in the context of leisure travel to a national wildlife park (Study 1) and leisure travel experienced recently (Study 2). In Study 1 a convenience sampling technique was used by means of a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 228 fully completed questionnaires were received. Study 2 made use of a web-based survey and a random sample technique was used. A total of 254 questionnaires were used in the statistical calculations of Study 2. The results from both studies indicated that traveler/tourist’s life satisfaction can be increased when they have intrinsic goals, growth-based goals, and goals related to flow activities. To enhance traveler/tourist well-being, it is recommended that marketers in the tourism industry implement programs and services guided by the goal valence model.

The aim of the Handbook of Social Indicators and Quality of Life Research is to create an overview of the field of Quality of Life (QOL) studies in the early years of the 21st century that can be updated and improved upon as the field evolves and the century unfolds. Social indicators are statistical time series “…used to monitor the social system, helping to identify changes and to guide interventions to alter the course of social change.” Examples include unemployment rates, crime rates, estimates of life expectancy, health status indices, school enrollment rates, average achievement scores, election voting rates, and measures of subjective well-being such as satisfaction with life-as-a-whole and with specific domains or aspects of life. This book provides a review of the historical development of the field including the history of QOL in medicine and mental health as well as research related to quality-of—work-life (QWL) programs. It discusses several of QOL main concepts: happiness, positive psychology, and subjective well-being. Relations between spirituality and religiousness and QOL are examined as are the effects of educational attainment on QOL, and the associations with economic growth. The book goes on to investigate methodological approaches and issues that should be considered in measuring and analyzing quality of life from a quantitative perspective. The final chapters are dedicated to research on elements of QOL in a broad range of countries and populations.

This study develops and tests a model that explains how satisfaction of self-expressiveness and hedonic needs associated with physical exercise affect a variety of well-being outcomes (i.e., healthy eating, BMI, satisfaction with health, and subjective well-being). We conducted a survey of college students at universities in three countries: the U.S.A., France, and South Korea. The results indicate that self-expressiveness associated with physical exercise (exercise practiced routinely and with high frequency) is much more predictive of healthy eating than hedonic enjoyment. Healthy eating was also shown to be associated with other personal positive outcomes such as low body mass index, increased satisfaction with personal health, and increased subjective wellbeing. Managerial and policy implications are discussed.

In this chapter, the authors make an attempt to review and integrate much of the research on shopping well-being and ill-being experiences. The integrated model identifies the antecedents of these two focal constructs in terms of situational, individual, and cultural factors. The consequences of shopping well-being and ill-being experiences on life satisfaction (or subjective well-being) are explained through a bottom-up spillover process. Managerial implications and avenues for future research are also discussed.

This research proposes a theoretical model of post-purchase evaluations that incorporates seven sets of benefits: functional, symbolic, economic, safety, hedonic, moral, and leisure benefits. These benefit criteria are well documented in the literature. The study reported here was designed to test the effect symmetry of these benefit criteria in post-purchase evaluations. Effect symmetry refers to whether increases in a benefit are likely to cause proportional increases in post-purchase evaluations. The study tested the hypothesis that “must-have” benefits (functional, economic, and safety benefits) are negatively asymmetric, whereas the “nice-to-have” benefits (symbolic, hedonic, moral, and leisure benefits) are positively symmetric. Five surveys were conducted in relation to five product categories in four countries (computers and automobiles in the United States, banks in France, housing in Korea, and leisure travel in Germany). Respondents completed 2386 questionnaires, of which 2291 were used in the statistical analysis. With respect to effect symmetry, the results indicate that the criterion of functional benefits is negatively asymmetric in predicting post-purchase evaluations, whereas symbolic and moral benefits are positively asymmetric. Hedonic and leisure benefits are symmetric. Managerial implications are discussed.

This study reports an attempt to validate a customer well-being (CWB) index related to natural wildlife tourism. It was hypothesized that the CWB index related to wildlife tourism has a positive influence on travel outcomes (length of stay, number of visits, and total expenses), mediated by perceived value and customer loyalty. These hypotheses were tested using four waves of surveys of customers (overnight visitors) intercepted at the park in a two-year period. The survey data provided support for the hypotheses, which, in turn, lend validation support to the CWB index. Managerial implications of the customer well-being index are also discussed.

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model capturing the effects of ethics institutionalization on employee experiences in work life and overall life satisfaction. It was hypothesized that explicit ethics institutionalization has a positive effect on implicit ethics institutionalization, which in turn enhances employee experiences in work life. It was also hypothesized that employee work life experiences (job satisfaction, quality of work life, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment) have a positive effect on overall life satisfaction and happiness, moderated by work–family life conflict. Data were collected though a survey of marketing managers in Italy. The data provide good but partial support for the model. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

What is the effect of mall atmosphere in mall evaluation? Is this effect mediated by self-congruity and functional congruity? Does the effect of mall atmosphere on mall evaluation differ between adult and teenage shoppers? If so how? The research reported in this paper attempts to answer the above questions. A survey of mall shoppers was conducted (N = 265) based on a mall intercept. The survey findings indicate that mall atmosphere positively affects functional congruity for both adults and teenage shoppers. However, as expected, the impact of atmosphere on self-congruity is only significant for teenagers. In turn, self-congruity and functional congruity positively affect mall evaluation for both adult and teenage shoppers.

Previous research suggests that ethics institutionalization positively influences quality of work life (QWL). This study hypothesizes that the effect of ethics institutionalization on QWL is stronger for Thai than U.S. managers, because the Thai culture is collectivistic, whereas the U.S. culture is individualistic. Survey data were collected from Thailand from a sample of marketing managers of Thai companies listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET). The U.S. data involved a sample of U.S. members of the American Marketing Association. The results provide partial support for the hypotheses.

The relationship between clients and their health care providers has an important impact on health promotion and disease prevention. Perhaps the most important element of patients’ relationships with their health care providers is trust. Enhancing clients’ trust in their health care provider has been shown to lead to greater adherence to medical advice, continuity of care, and better overall health outcomes. Pharmacists are beginning to take on the role of primary health care providers to meet the increasing need for affordable, quality medical care. As pharmacists begin to dispense medical advice as well as medicine, there is an increased need for research on the determinants of trust in the pharmacist-client relationship. In this article, we conduct in-depth interviews and a large-scale field survey to develop a social marketing campaign to increase clients’ trust in their pharmacists. We implement the campaign through a randomized field experiment and find evidence that emphasizing relational benefits in the developing stages of the pharmacist–client relationship increases trust.

This research examines how future event markers influence intertemporal choice, and it demonstrates across five studies that the number of salient events between a smaller-sooner and larger-later option impacts patience. The direction of the effect depends on whether the individual relies on emotion versus reason to make decisions. For those who rely on emotion, additional events increase patience. Conversely, for individuals who rely on reason, additional events decrease patience. These effects are driven by perceptions of time, as events contract perceptions of time for emotional decision makers but expand perceptions of time for rational decision makers. Implications arise for intertemporal choice, time perception, and emotional versus rational decision making.

In the face of an opportunity to indulge, individuals may consult their memories in order to ascertain whether enough progress has been made toward a self-regulatory goal in order to justify indulgence. This research demonstrates that in such situations, impulsive individuals who possess a regulatory goal are likely to distort memories of past behavior, manufacturing goal progress in order to license indulgence in the present. In four studies, this effect is demonstrated in the domains of eating, spending, and studying, and alternative processes are ruled out. Furthermore, it is shown that perceptions of goal progress drive impulsive (vs. nonimpulsive) people’s greater likelihood of engaging in behavior inconsistent with their regulatory goal. These findings provide insights into the domains of goal pursuit, impulsivity, and memory distortion.

Very little research addresses whether the values that consumers bring to a situation can affect their reactions to a brand failure. This paper suggests the interesting possibility that consumers may react very differently to the same brand failure depending upon their values. Here, the authors introduce a new construct to the marketing literature, honor values, and demonstrate its effect on responses to brand failures.

This article introduces time anthropomorphism: a tendency to attribute time with humanlike mental states (e.g., time has a will of its own). This tendency, which varies across individuals and may also be induced, changes patience (e.g., for regular over expedited shipping). Specifically, time anthropomorphism reduces patience for low-power (but not high-power) individuals because anthropomorphism makes the aversive force of wait time seem more potent (i.e., more aversive) to those who feel less potent themselves (i.e., low-power individuals). In a field study with real money at stake, and four experiments, we verify the effect on patience and confirm the process via both mediation (i.e., the effect is mediated by how aversively time is perceived) and moderation (i.e., the effect reverses when time is made to seem beneficent). Thus, we introduce time as a consequential anthropomorphic entity, present novel effects on intertemporal preferences, and delineate a potency process for power.

Marketing strategies are often tied to how consumers spend time (e.g., waiting in lines, searching across stores) in return for money (e.g., receiving a discount). Viewing such timemoney tradeoffs in terms of a reservation wage rate for consumers, we identify a wage-rate asymmetry between two elicitation procedures: (a) Money-Elicit (MEL): state the minimum amount of money, M, that you would accept in return for spending a given number of hours, T; and (b) Time-Elicit (TEL): state the maximum number of hours, T, that you would spend in return for accepting a given amount of money, M. While these procedures are normatively equivalent, we propose that TEL (vs. MEL) wage rates are higher because time scarcity receives a higher weight in TEL judgments. In eight studies including both hypothetical and real settings, we document the wage-rate asymmetry, the time scarcity process, and a downstream consequence of TEL (vs. MEL) reducing the likelihood of accepting a time-money tradeoff. We discuss the implications for practice, and for research on wage rates, time versus money, procedural invariance, and scarcity.

This research examines the role of emotional intelligence (EI) on the adoption and maintenance of a healthy weight. We implemented an intervention over a 6-week period demonstrating that EI can be learned to promote the use of cognitive health knowledge in the adoption and maintenance of a healthy weight. Results suggest that improving EI reduces the negative impact of low EI on positive health outcomes, and promotes quality decision making related to health (i.e., reduced calorie intake).

A persuasive message that favors one option in a binary choice can enhance the apparent value of its target by biasing the interpretation of subsequent information. The message installs its target as the initial leader in preference and lets the predecisional distortion of information defend that leadership position. An experiment that contrasts showing TV commercials before and after objective product information demonstrates this process. Ratings of the importance of the commercials to the choice indicate that people are aware of advertising's direct effect on their choice but not of its indirect effect through the biased evaluation of the product information.

Employees have personal responsibilities as well as responsibilities to their employers. They also have rights. In order to maintain their well-being, employees need opportunities to resolve conflicting obligations. Employees are often torn between the ethical obligations to fulfill both their work and non-work roles, to respect and be respected by their employers and coworkers, to be responsible to the organization while the organization is reciprocally responsible to them, to be afforded some degree of autonomy at work while attending to collaborative goal, to work within a climate of mutual employee-management trust, and to voice opinions about work policies, processes, and conditions without fear of retribution. Humanistic organizations can recognize conflicts created by the work environment and provide opportunities to resolve or minimize them. This handbook empirically documents the dilemmas that result from responsibility-based conflicts. The book is organized by sources of dilemmas that fall into three major categories: individual, organizational (internal policies and procedures), and cultural (social forces external to the organization), including an introduction and a final integration of the many ways in which organizations can contribute to positive employee health and well-being. This books is aimed at both academics and practitioners interested in how interventions that stem from industrial and organizational psychology address ethical dilemmas commonly faced by employees.

Value-expressive brands’ success stem largely from self-congruity between their brand personalities and targeted consumers’ self-concepts (Aaker, 1997). Over 100 conceptual and empirical articles highlight self-congruity's effect on consumer decision-making. The following meta-analysis identifies key theoretical and managerial issues of the self-congruity effect. Study results reinforce the self-congruity effect's robustness (r=.31). Moderation analysis sheds theoretical insights about self-congruity's motivational and cognitive underpinnings. The findings suggest self-congruity effects are a function of underlying self-motive “socialness,” degree of self-enhancement sought, the brand personality facet, the judgment object's abstraction level, cognitive elaboration, and the underlying impression formation process. These findings generate methodological and theoretical recommendations for future self-congruity research, as well as recommendations for marketing practitioners.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as an important topic. The focus of this research is on the impact of incongruity between an organization's CSR orientation and its employees' CSR orientation on two dimensions of employees' quality of work life (QWL)—lower- and higher-order need satisfaction. The sample consists of employees of six companies selected from different sectors in Thailand. The results indicate that incongruence between employee's and firm's CSR orientation is negatively associated with both lower- and higher order need satisfaction.

This study is to shed more light on gender disparity in job satisfaction in the context of Western versus Asian managers. It addresses the “gender paradox of the female contented worker” and takes a position that the paradox does not apply to female managers in Asia. Data were collected from Thailand as representative of Asian countries and from the U.S. as representative of Western countries. The data show that the gender paradox phenomenon is suspect at best. The results suggest that there is gender disparity in job satisfaction in both countries. There are also significant gender disparities in lower-order quality of work life (QWL) and organizational socialization in Thailand, but not in the U.S. There is no significant gender disparity in higher-order QWL in both countries. These results imply that gender disparity in job satisfaction in Thailand is driven mainly by significant gender disparity in lower-order QWL and organizational socialization.

This survey of marketing managers compares small business firms with large ones in relation to explicit and implicit ethics institutionalization, quality of work life (QWL), job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment. The results reveal that large firms tend to have a higher degree of explicit ethics institutionalization than smaller firms but not in relation to implicit ethics institutionalization. The results also reveal that marketing managers in small firms report higher levels of job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment compared to marketing managers in large firms. The study findings also show that marketing managers in small firms report higher levels of overall QWL, particularly higher-order QWL than managers in large firms.

The focus of our chapter is on the impact of ethics institutionalization on the employees’ job-related well-being. Based on our literature review, we believe the research on the impact of ethics institutionalization on different aspects of organizational climate including employees’ quality of work life and job-related outcomes has received relatively limited attention (i.e., compared to research on the impact of ethics institutionalization on ethical behavior of employees). The purpose of our chapter, which is a review of the extant literature, is to help narrow this research gap. As discussed in the chapter, in addition to having a positive impact on ethical conduct of employees, the institutionalization of ethics can also have a positive impact on different aspects of employees' job-related well-being. Given the increasing emphasis on both organizational ethics and improving employee well-being in recent years, we believe this contribution is important to both research and practice. As such, we first discuss the ethics institutionalization construct—its conceptualization, its measurement, and its impact on different aspects of employees’ job-related well-being. Second, we discuss key job-related well-being constructs (namely, quality of work life, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and esprit de corps). Finally, we address the research implications related to links between various forms of ethics institutionalization and employee-organizational and employee-life outcomes. Lastly, we highlight managerial implications of this research.

Because of increasing ethical problems in business during the last two decades, many organizations have implicitly and/or explicitly institutionalized ethics. Implicit ethics institutionalization refers to a work climate where ethical behavior is either implied or understood to be crucial to the functioning of the firm (e.g., informal expectations that all employees demonstrate a high level of professionalism, honesty, and integrity). In contrast, explicit ethics institutionalization refers to the formal codification of ethical behavior in terms of policy manuals, orientation programs, and ethics committees. It has been argued that the upsurge of ethics institutionalization was a result of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines first approved by Congress in the early 1990s, which essentially provides for reduced penalties for organizations that demonstrate an adequate degree of ethics compliance. Specifically, the main objective of this research is to empirically demonstrate the direct and indirect effects of different forms of ethics institutionalization (implicit and explicit) on marketing managers’ behavioral responses, such as perceived importance of ethics, quality of work life (QWL), job satisfaction, esprit de corps, and organizational commitment. Demonstrating the significant effects of ethics institutionalization is important from a macromarketing perspective, because findings highlight the moral premise that institutionalizing ethics in the organization (thus benefiting society at large) is likely to influence employee behavioral responses that are traditionally related to the financial health of the organization.

This paper reports a study designed to further validate a measure of quality of college life (QCL) of university students (Sirgy, Grzeskowiak, Rahtz, Soc Indic Res 80(2), 343–360, 2007). Two studies were conducted: a replication study and an extension study. The replication study involved surveys of 10 different college campuses in different countries. The results of the replication study provided additional nomological (predictive) validation support of the measure based on a theoretical model mapping out the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction with college life. With respect to the extension study, the focus was to further test the nomological validity of the QCL measure by arguing and empirically demonstrating that the consequence of QCL is life satisfaction. The extension study involved a survey of three college campuses in different countries. The results were also supportive of the nomological validity of the QCL measure.

This chapter reviews the research literature of self-congruity in travel and tourism and refines the theoretical model that Sirgy and Su proposed in 2000 [Sirgy, M. J., and Su, C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior: Toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 340-352]. The goal is to revisit the theoretical propositions in light of the recent evidence and to propose new theoretical propositions to further guide this program of research.

We pose the question: Is consumer sovereignty in the healthcare market fact or fiction? Consumer sovereignty in healthcare implies that society benefits at large when healthcare organizations compete to develop high quality healthcare products while reducing the cost of doing business (reflected in low prices), and when consumers choose wisely among healthcare products by purchasing those high quality products at low prices. We develop a theoretical model that encourages systematic empirical research to investigate whether consumer sovereignty in healthcare is fact or fiction. In doing so, we develop a series of theoretical propositions that may demonstrate that consumer sovereignty is more fiction than fact. Specifically, healthcare consumers lack the ability, motivation, and opportunity to choose healthcare products that are high in quality and low in price. Similarly, healthcare firms lack the ability, motivation, and opportunity to compete in ways to develop and market higher quality products at lower prices.

A new measure of community well-being is developed based on the notion that community residents perceive the quality-of-life (QOL) impact of community services and conditions in various life domains (e.g., family, social, leisure, health, financial, cultural, consumer, work, spiritual, and environmental domains). These perceptions influence residents’ overall perception of community well-being, their commitment to the community, and their overall life satisfaction. Survey data were collected in the Flint area (Michigan, USA) in four waves (1978, 1990, 2001, and 2006). The data supported the nomological validity of the measure.

The goal of the research reported in this article was to develop a model describing how positive and negative affect associated with specific experiences of a travel trip influence tourists’ overall sense of well-being (life satisfaction). The model is based on the theoretical notion that a travel trip influences life satisfaction through tourists’ experiences of positive and negative affect associated with a recent tourist trip couched within various life domains (e.g., social life, leisure life, family life, cultural life, health and safety, love life, work life, and financial life). We conducted two studies. The first study was qualitative, designed to identify specific sources of positive and negative affect generated by the most recent tourist trip experiences in the context of various life domains. The second study involved a survey of tourists (N = 264) to test the model in a formal manner. The data provided support for the overall model; the data also helped identify specific sources of positive and negative affect that play a significant role in tourists’ overall sense of well-being. Specific managerial recommendations are made for tourist operators based on the study findings.

Most of the theoretically based QOL indicators projects can be classified in terms of six major theoretical concepts: (a) socio-economic development (b) personal utility, (c) just society, (d) human development, (e) sustainability, and (f) functioning. I explain the core aspects of these six theoretical paradigms and show how they help guide QOL researchers to select and develop QOL indicators that are significantly and qualitatively distinct. A taxonomy of QOL indicators guided by a given theoretical concept is likely to be very different from others taxonomies guided by different theoretical concepts. Thus, the objective of this paper to explain these theoretical paradigms and show how they guide QOL researchers to select and develop QOL indicators that are significantly and qualitatively distinct.

This article proposes a quality-of-life (QOL) theory of leisure travel satisfaction based on goal theory. The proposed theory has four central principles: (1) selecting leisure travel goals that have high levels of positive valence, (2) selecting leisure travel goals that are very likely to be attained, (3) engaging in actions that would implement these leisure travel goals, and (4) engaging in actions that would allow the tourist to experience goal attainment. Numerous subprinciples are introduced in the context of these four major principles. A research agenda is discussed based on the overall theory. Managerial implications of this research are also discussed.

Does the level of marketing activity in a country contribute to societal well-being or quality of life? Does economic efficiency also play a positive role in societal well-being? Does economic efficiency also moderate or mediate the marketing activity effect on societal well-being? Marketing activity refers to the pervasiveness of promotion expenditures and number of retail outlets per capita in a country. Economic efficiency refers to the extent to which the economy is unhampered by corruption, burdensome government regulation, and a large informal economy. We used secondary data from the World Bank and other statistical sources to answer these questions. Our study findings suggest that both marketing activity and economic efficiency contribute positively to societal wellbeing, and that economic efficiency plays more of a mediator than moderator role between marketing activity and societal well-being. The public policy implication of this study is that increases in marketing activity and economic efficiency in countries characterized as low on both dimensions should significantly increase the quality of life in those countries.

This is a second edition of a scholarly about hedonic well-being (emotional well-being, positive/negative affect, affective dimension of happiness, etc.), life satisfaction (subjective well-being, perceived quality of life, and cognitive dimension of happiness), and Eudaimonia (psychological well-being, self-actualization, self-realization, growth, mental health, character strength, etc.). The first edition was published in 2002. The book is divided in six major sections. Part 1 begins with a chapter that covers much of the history and philosophical foundations of the psychology of quality of life in terms of the three major pillars: hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and Eudaimonia. This part also covers much of the research that has successfully made distinctions among these three major constructs and its varied dimensions. To establish the importance of the topic (the psychology of quality of life), this part also covers much of the literature on the positive benefits of hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and Eudaimonia on the individual, the community, organizations, and society at large. Part 2 focuses on capturing much of the research dealing with the effects of objective reality (objective factors grounded in real, environmental conditions) on hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and Eudaimonia. Specifically, this part captures the quality-of-life literature related to biological and health-related effects, income effects, other demographic effects, effects of personal activities, and socio-cultural effects. Part 3 shifts gears to focus on the effects of subjective reality on hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and Eudaimonia. In this context, the book reviews research on personality effects, effects of affect and cognition, effects of beliefs and values, effects of goals, self-concept effects, and social comparison effects. Part 4 focuses on quality-of-life research that is domain specific. That is. The book covers the research on the psychology of life domains in general and delves in some depth to describe research on work well-being, residential well-being, material well-being, social well-being, health well-being, leisure well-being, and the well-being of other life domains of lesser salience. Part 5 focuses on covering much of the psychology of quality-of-life literature dealing with specific populations such as the elderly, women, children and youth, and specific countries. Part 6 is essentially an epilogue. This part discusses a variety of theories proposed by quality-of-life scholars designed to integrate much of the literature on the psychology of quality of life. The last chapter covers the author’s own integrative theory.

This is a textbook on consumer behavior designed for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in consumer behavior.

This is a textbook on real estate marketing designed for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in real estate marketing.

This chapter has attempted to describe popular constructs and measures of personal well-being as indicators of the impact of social marketing programs. Impact indicators are different from output and outcome indicators. Impact indicators are end goals in a hierarchy of indicators (output → outcomes → impact). Personal well-being constructs and their corresponding indicators may not be suitable as impact indicators for all social marketing programs. However, personal well-being is likely to apply to a vast majority of social marketing programs.

The literature in economic psychology and quality-of-life studies alludes to a negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction. In contrast, the macroeconomic literature implies a positive relationship between material consumption and economic growth. That is, materialism may be both good and bad. We develop a model that reconciles these two contrasting viewpoints by asserting that materialism may lead to life dissatisfaction when materialistic people evaluate their standard of living using fantasy-based expectations (e.g., ideal expectations), which increases the likelihood that they would evaluate their standard of living negatively. In turn, dissatisfaction with standard of living increases the likelihood that they would evaluate their life negatively. However, materialistic people who evaluate their standard of living using reality-based expectations (e.g., ability expectations) are likely to feel more economically motivated than their nonmaterialistic counterparts, and this economic motivation is likely to contribute significantly and positively to life satisfaction. Survey data were collected from seven major cities each in a different country (Australia, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Germany, Egypt, Korea, Turkey, and the USA) using a probability sample (cluster sampling method involving income stratification). The results provide support for the model. The economic public policy implications concerning how people evaluate their standard of living using ability-based expectations are discussed in the context of the ideals of meritocracy.

Based on a thorough review of the literature we introduce an integrated conceptualization of work-life balance involving two key dimensions: engagement in work life and non-work life and minimal conflict between social roles in work and non-work life. Based on this conceptualization we review much of the evidence concerning the consequences of work-life balance in terms work-related, non-work related, and stress-related outcomes. We then identify a set of personal and organizational antecedents to work-life balance and explain their effects on work-life balance. Then we describe a set of theoretical mechanisms linking work-life balance and overall life satisfaction. Finally, we discuss future research directions and policy implications.

We view leisure well-being as satisfaction in leisure life that contributes to subjective well-being. The model we propose focuses on how leisure activities contribute to leisure well-being. We surmise that a leisure activity contributes to leisure well-being by satisfying a set of basic needs (benefits related to safety, health, economic, sensory, escape, and/or sensation/stimulation needs) and growth needs (benefits related to symbolic, aesthetic, moral, mastery, relatedness, and/or distinctiveness needs). Also, further amplification occurs when certain benefits of leisure activities match corresponding personality traits and goals of the participants; safety consciousness, health consciousness, price sensitivity, hedonism, escapism, sensation seeking, status consciousness, aestheticism, moral sensitivity, competitiveness, sociability, and need for distinctiveness, respectively.

Martin Seligman, in his very popular book Authentic Happiness (Seligman 2002), argued that authentic happiness is derived from three major sets of experiences in life, namely experiencing pleasantness regularly (the pleasant life), experiencing a high level of engagement in satisfying activities (the engaged life), and experiencing a sense of connectedness to a greater whole (the meaningful life). In this chapter, we maintain that balance in life contributes significantly to subjective well-being. Balance contributes to subjective well-being because of the satisfaction limit that people can derive from a single life domain. People have to be involved in multiple domains to satisfy the full spectrum of human development needs. Different life domains tend to focus on different human developmental needs. More specifically, balance contributes to subjective well-being because subjective well-being can only be attained when both survival and growth needs are met. High levels of subjective well-being cannot be attained with satisfaction of basic needs or growth needs alone. Both needs have to be met to induce subjective well-being.

My article on “The ethics of consumer sovereignty in an age of high tech” (Sirgy & Su, 2000) made the case that consumer sovereignty is not an effective concept guiding business to deliver the best quality of life to consumers and to society at large. Market regulations have to be in place to help ameliorate the many social ills associated with business. However, the best that market regulations can do is to decrease business malfeasance. In addition to market regulations, corporate social responsibility (CSR) can help decrease business malfeasance and contribute some to business beneficence. I allude to my previous work on quality-of-life marketing as a CSR approach. However, I make the argument that the effectiveness of CSR in guiding business to higher levels of beneficence and lower malfeasance is very limited. This is where social business can fill in the gap and do much good. In addition to market regulations and CSR, social business can go a long way to make the free enterprise system better society.

This paper develops theory related to advertising, materialism, and life satisfaction by formally testing explanations related to the antecedents and consequences of materialism. Survey data were collected from seven major cities each in a different country (Australia, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Germany, Egypt, Korea, Turkey, and the USA) using a probability sample (cluster sampling method involving income stratification). The results showed that the extent to which advertising is perceived to be materialistic contributes to materialism. Materialism, in turn, leads to the frequent use of various standards of comparison in making judgments about standard of living. As judgments about standard of living increase, standard of living is evaluated more negatively. In turn, negative self-evaluations contribute significantly to dissatisfaction with life.

This chapter is designed to provide the reader a simple and integrated perspective of employee well-being to report on what I consider important findings in this growing area of research in I/O psychology, management, and quality-of-life studies. In doing so, I made an attempt to answer the following research questions: What is employee well-being? What is the relationship between employee well-being and subjective well-being (i.e., positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, absence of depression)? How does employee well-being affect subjective well-being? What are other consequences of employee well-being? What determines employee well-being?

This chapter is designed to review the research related to QWL programs. There are many QWL programs. We will discuss some of them in terms of two major categories: QWL programs that affect work-related role identities and QWL programs that impact non-work identities.

We have attempted to introduce the basic concepts commonly used to analyze and measure well-being in this chapter. We discuss how societal-level data capturing well-being are traditionally constructed, with indicators reflecting the desired states of the human condition as reflected in both subjective and objective output indicators. In contrast to subjective and objective data of the final desired states, input indicators and data reflect institutional efforts designed to influence both subjective and objective terminal states (i.e., output of the human condition). These include health care (e.g., number of physicians per 1000 households), infrastructure (e.g., government expenditures on roads, bridges, telecommunications, water and sanitary systems, electric power), law enforcement and security (e.g., number of police per 1000 households), and so on. We also discussed equity indicators, which focus on the well-being of historically disadvantaged groups. The analysis of societal progress cannot be complete without an assessment of progress in such groups. For example, what is the quality of life of women in a particular country? Has their quality of life improved over time? How does the quality of life of women in that country compare to that of women in other countries? Addressing societal inequities and disparities is extremely important, given the fact that much civil strife is directly related to how society treats its historically disadvantaged groups. The importance of equity and the need to measure equity in society are of paramount importance in eradicating inequity and disparities. A complete assessment of well-being in a given country must include how that country uses technology to enhance the quality of life of its citizenry. In this context, we described how quality-of-life researchers traditionally measure societal progress in the use of technology in terms of subjective indicators (i.e., satisfaction with mobile communications, satisfaction with the use of the Internet), objective indicators (e.g., number of mobile phones per 1000 household, degree of access to the Internet), and landscape indicators (e.g., number of Internet service providers per 100,000 households, country level percentage coverage of mobile communications). Well-being in 2015 is about more than simply alleviating stress and reducing pain in aggregate human terms. The measurement of societal well-being should capture those aspects of life that make life worth living—the positive aspects that emanate from fulfillment, social capital and human community in the context of a world capable of supporting basic human needs for the greatest number possible. Hence, a comprehensive picture of well-being of a country or a world region has to include those aspects of society related to the reduction of ill-being and those aspects related to enhancement of well-being.

The goal of this chapter is to make a clear distinction of indicators of well-being from indicators of ill-being at several levels of analyses, namely the individual level, the community level, and the societal level. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is used as a theoretical backdrop to help make these distinctions. That is, indicators of ill-being reflect satisfaction (or lack of satisfaction) of basic needs (survival-related needs such as biological and safety-related needs), whereas indicators of well-being reflect satisfaction (or lack thereof) of growth needs (social, esteem, self-actualization, intellectual, and aesthetic-related needs). Well-being versus ill-being indicators are identified and clearly distinguished from one another, not only at different levels of analyses (individual, community, and societal) but also between outcome and action indicators. Outcome indicators reflect the desired end state, whereas action indicators reflect indicators of programs and policies designed to influence the outcome states. Such distinctions are important for policy-making.

We hypothesize that the well-being effectiveness (for both the service provider and the patient) of a given meditation technique is dependent on the situation within the clinician-patient interface. Specifically, situations involving patient diagnostics/prognostics may require meditation to relinquish negative thoughts and insight meditation. Situations involving disease or disorder progression may also call for compassion and kindness meditation techniques. Outcome situations may be quite positive or very negative. Situations involving patients overcoming the disease or arresting the disorder progression may call for gratitude meditation. In such situations, both patient and service provider may feel much emotional relief. Situations involving patients succumbing to the disease or dealing with a life-long disorder may call for meditation techniques such as insight and pain. In such situations the patient is likely to experience fear and the inevitability of premature death or long-term disability.

We argue in this chapter that the concept of eudaimonia embodies the elements of psychological happiness (hedonic well-being or emotional well-being), prudential happiness (life satisfaction), and perfectionist happiness (mental health, self-actualization, psychological well-being and flourishing). We review selected theories of eudaimonia and suggest ideas for future research. These theories are self-determination theory, the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the theory of human flourishing, meaning and purpose in life theory, theory of positive mental health, need hierarchy theory, and eudaimonstic identity theory.

This chapter reviews the various conceptualizations of residential well-being and introduces a new conceptualization. The new concept of residential well-being is defined as satisfaction with one's living arrangement captured by one's home and its immediate surrounding (i.e., community) to the extent that this satisfaction contributes to the sense of well-being in seven major life domains, namely health/safety, financial, family, social, work, leisure/arts/culture, and education/personal development, which in turn all contribute to the overall sense of subjective well-being. The sense of well-being in major life domains such as health/safety, financial, and family life serves to meet basic needs a la Maslow (low-order needs related to survival such as biological and safety needs). In contrast, satisfaction in other life domains such social, work, leisure/arts/culture, and education/personal development serves to meet growth needs (again a la Maslow; high-order needs related to human flourishing). Thus, housing and community amenities play a significant role in each of the aforementioned life domains contributing to domain satisfaction, which in turn contribute to overall life satisfaction. Within a given life domain, satisfaction with housing and community amenities contribute to positive/negative affect within that domain. Based on this conceptualization of residential well-being, survey measures can be developed and tested to establish the reliability and validity of this construct.

The purpose of this chapter is, therefore, to describe a framework that helps public policy officials better understand the good, bad and ugly of globalization. Such understanding should help guide the formulation of new policies, the aim of which is to enhance the QOL of targeted countries.

This chapter reviews the current state of self-congruity research in consumer psychology with the goal of generating a set of theoretical propositions to spur future research. The chapter is organized as follows. First, we review four different types of self-congruity (actual, ideal, social and ideal social self-congruity) along with their motivations. Second, we will discuss the bias effect of self-congruity on functional congruity. Third, we then present a set of moderators under which self-congruity is likely to have a significant influence on pre- and post-purchase consumer behaviours. Finally, future research directions are discussed.

In this chapter we expand the conceptualization of community well-being, the indicators used to measure it, and suggest fresh and more systemically comprehensive considerations for research and practice in distressed and flourishing communities. Past research has distinguished between distressed and flourishing communities in terms of quality-of-life (QOL) indicators: distressed communities tend to focus on basic needs of community residents (e.g., food, shelter, crime, unemployment, and security measures); flourishing communities on basic needs plus growth needs (e.g., sports, recreation, arts and culture, innovations, and leisure). We revisit the concept of flourishing in QOL studies and discuss concepts such as human flourishing, self-determination, psychological well-being, flow and engagement, and purpose and meaning in life. We then discuss concepts of community vulnerability and resilience and advance our own definition of flourishing versus distressed communities. A flourishing community is a recognizable assembly of people with shared values, cooperating to ensure clear evidence of positive physical, economic, environmental, and social well-being, which empower constituent members in their efforts to affect further prosocial outcomes for stakeholders of the community. A distressed community is essentially the converse. We then describe a systemic framework that captures the conditions within that interact to produce community well-being. These conditions involve marketing practices, consumption/demand, catalytic institutions (government, business, and NGOs), characteristics of the marketplace or citizen-stakeholders of it (location/access, income/wealth capital, social/cultural capital, situational commonalities, transparency/accountability, motivation, and market literacy/access), and macro factors (geo/environment, population, political/legal, economic, social/cultural, education, administration, infrastructure, and technology).

Based on a thorough review of the literature we identified four research streams identifying four corresponding factors that play an important in role work-life balance: (1) balanced role commitment, (2) positive spillover, (3) role conflict, and (4) social alienation. Based on these four factors, we classified individuals into four work-life balance groups with differing levels of life satisfaction. We then explained the psychological dynamics of the model by articulating three principles: satisfaction spillover across life domains, need satisfaction quota, and satisfaction from basic plus growth needs. Research and policy implications are also discussed.

Some people experience self-expressiveness in shopping. Self-expressiveness in shopping is defined as the degree to which consumers they think shopping activity is an important part of their self-concept. This paper reports on the testing of a model dealing with antecedents and consequences of self-expressiveness in shopping. Based on eudaimonistic identity theory, we hypothesized that feeling of self-expressiveness in shopping is influenced by consumers' flow experiences in shopping activities, self-realization potential through shopping, and effort expended through shopping. We also hypothesize that self-expressiveness in shopping increases overall life satisfaction, mediated by perceived impact of shopping on life satisfaction. The model was tested using a panel of 5,440 shoppers. The results provide good support for the model. Managerial implications are discussed in addition to avenues for future research.

When planning future consumption, individuals are known to opt for large virtue quantities and small vice quantities as a means of self-control. We argue that such planning may also involve the time window within which a given quantity needs to be consumed because the final objective is to plan for a desired consumption rate (i.e., quantity/time window)—a high virtue rate and a low vice rate. Five studies reveal that, when quantity is held constant, a short window (i.e., high rate) nudges individuals toward virtues, and a long window (i.e., low rate) toward vices. We find this effect for hypothetical and real virtue-vice choices, preferences, and willingness to extend a time window. Furthermore, these effects are mediated by the pursuit of long-term health goals, and are moderated such that the effect of time windows is stronger for those who need more help in meeting their self-control goals—that is, impulsive individuals. While these effects are consistent with self-control, we discuss a blend of mechanisms that may be working in conjunction, particularly at the stage that we focus on: planning rather than consuming. Our results offer strong theoretical implications and important consequences for the marketplace where expiration periods and other time windows are ubiquitous.

Given the recent proliferation of the research on quality of life and wellbeing in tourism, we review this literature and provide guidance to spur future research. The review focuses on two major constituencies: residents of host communities and tourists. Specifically, the goals of this paper are (1) describe study findings, (2) highlight sampling and data collection methods, and (3) discuss issues of construct measurement. The vast majority of the studies related to these two constituencies show that tourism experiences and activities have a significant effect on both tourists' overall life satisfaction and wellbeing of residents. That is, tourists' experiences and tourism activities tend to contribute to positive affect in a variety of life domains such as family life, social life, leisure life, cultural life, among others. Future research is discussed in relation to these two constituencies.

Quality of life (QOL research in tourism has gained much momentum over the last two decades. Academics working in this area research issues related to tourists and host communities. Practitioners are becoming increasingly interested in understanding the science that allows them to develop better marketing and managerial programs designed to enhance the quality of life of tourists. Tourism bureaus and government agencies are increasingly interested in issues of sustainable tourism, specifically in understanding and measuring the impact of tourism on the quality of life of the residents of the host communities. This handbook covers all relevant topics and is divided into two parts: research relating to travelers/tourists, and research relating to the residents of host communities. It is the only state-of-the-art reference book in its field and will prove invaluable to academics interested in QOL research, as well as tourism practitioners interested in applying the science of QOL in the tourism industry.

Social media and the access of social networking platforms through a variety of media are integral parts of almost every community today. To address the debate of drawbacks and benefits of social media best practices in higher education and beyond, this article presents research examining motivation and media usage patterns in a major business school. An online survey of the college’s stakeholders discovered behaviors associated with media usage, including how and why respondents use social platforms. Usage varied across education, entertainment, and human connection. Over a five five-year period, interactions within these channels focused on by the college increased dramatically.

Consumers chose between options that paired either an objectively inferior good with high relative standing (Your laptop is rated 60/100 in quality; others' laptops are rated 50/100) or an objectively superior good with low relative standing (Your laptop is rated 80/100 in quality; others' laptops are rated 95/100). Decision makers who try to make the “best” decision, known as maximizers (Schwartz et al., 2002), pursued relative standing more than decision makers who are satisfied with outcomes that are “good enough” (known as satisficers). That is, maximizers were more likely than satisficers to choose objectively inferior products when they were associated with higher relative standing. Subsequent analyses investigating decisions across time showed that maximizers' interest in relative standing persisted even when the nature of the tradeoff was made overt, suggesting it is a conscious aspect of the maximizer identity. Overall, results suggest that the maximizer self concept is more complex than has been previously assumed—they are focused on relative outcomes in addition to absolute outcomes.

This paper reports a study testing the hypothesis that, compared to community residents who are not affiliated with the tourism industry, residents affiliated with tourism are likely to perceive tourism impact more positively, and the more positive their perception of tourism development, the more likely they feel satisfied with their lives. The study involved a survey of community residents of four tourist destinations in the U.S. A total of 407 responses were used for data analysis. The results provided support for the notion that the influence of community residents' perception of tourism impact and their life satisfaction is dependent on whether the residents are affiliated or not affiliated with the tourism sector.

Do purchasing managers discriminate against supply firms owned and run by women? Based on the literature on gender discrimination in business, we hypothesized that purchasing managers do discriminate against supply firms owned and run by women, but only when they are unfamiliar with the supply firm. We tested this hypothesis by conducting an experiment in which we manipulated three variables: gender of supply firm owner/manager, gender of purchasing manager, and familiarity (purchasers’ familiarity versus no-familiarity with owner). This 2 £ 2 £ 2 factorial design generated four different scenarios that were administered to a sample of corporate purchasing managers in the United States (N D 272), who responded to questions pertaining to constructs from Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. The results of this experiment provided directional support for the hypothesis (that is, the results were not statistically significant). We explain these results and encourage future research on this topic.

In this chapter we discuss well-being marketing in terms of humanistic marketing. Well-being marketing refers to the business mechanism that plans, prices, promotes, and distributes consumer goods for the purpose of enhancing customer well-being while preserving the well-being of all other stakeholders. Well-being marketing is based on duty ethics, specifically the duty of beneficence and non-maleficence. The principle of beneficence refers to a general group of duties that include a positive injunction to assist customers. The principle of beneficence judges the ethical nature of an action based on the criteria that one ought to promote good. For well-being marketing, it is a duty to improve the well-being of consumers by meeting their needs fully over the entire span of the consumer/product life cycle. The principle of non-maleficence refers to injunction not to inflict harm on others. Besides not inflicting harm, one ought to prevent or remove harm. Thus, well-being marketing is grounded in the ethics concepts of duty of beneficence and non-maleficence in that the focus is not only on serving consumers safely in a manner that contributes to their quality of life but also the preservation of well-being of the firm’s other stakeholders.

Whereas most existing self-control research and scales focus on singular self-control choice, the current work examines sequential self-control behavior. Specifically, this research focuses on behavior following initial self-control failure, identifying a set of key cognitive and emotional responses to initial failure that jointly underlie post-failure behavior. The tendency to experience these responses is captured in a new scale, the Response-to-Failure scale, which the authors develop and test in three consumer domains: eating, spending, and cheating. The results support the use of the same emotional and cognitive factors to predict post-failure behavior across these three domains, providing evidence of the generalizability of the scale structure. The data support the scale’s structure, nomological and discriminant validity, and test–retest reliability across five studies. In five additional studies, the scale’s predictive validity is demonstrated beyond other existing relevant scales. The authors also develop and test a short form of each domain scale. Finally, the authors discuss the implications for understanding post-failure behavior and suggest practical uses for the scale.